Psychology

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction with adults, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual’s well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills.

Psychotherapy

Delusion

Delusion is a fixed belief that is not amenable to change in light of conflicting evidence.

Delusions have been found to occur in the context of many pathological states (both general physical and mental) and are of particular diagnostic importance in psychotic disorders including schizophrenia, paraphrenia, manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression.

Explaining the causes of delusions continues to be challenging and several theories have been developed.

One is the genetic or biological theory-close relatives of people with delusional disorder are at increased risk of delusional traits. Another theory is the dysfunctional cognitive processing -delusions may arise from distorted ways people have of explaining life to themselves.

Delusion

Phobia

Phobia is a type of anxiety disorder defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.

Phobias typically, result in a rapid onset of fear and are present for more than six months.

Those affected will go to great lengths to avoid the situation or object, to a degree greater than the actual danger posed.

If the object or situation cannot be avoided, they experience significant distress.

Phobia

Problem Solving

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods in an orderly manner to find solutions to problems.

Problem solving in psychology refers to the process of finding solutions to problems encountered in life.

Solutions to these problems are usually situation or context-specific.

The process starts with problem finding and problem shaping, where the problem is discovered and simplified.

Problem Solving

Choleric

Choleric individuals tend to be more extroverted.

They are described as independent, decisive, goal-oriented, and ambitious.

These combined with their dominant, result-oriented outlook make them natural leaders.

In Greek, Medieval, and Renaissance thought, they were also violent, vengeful, and short-tempered.

Choleric

Phlegmatic

Phlegmatic individuals tend to be relaxed, peaceful, quiet, and easy-going. 

They are sympathetic and care about others, yet they try to hide their emotions.

Phlegmatic individuals are also good at generalising ideas or problems to the world and making compromises.

Phlegmatic

Sanguine

Sanguine is a man who could be described as such – a stable extrovert.

It is characterized by high mental activity, energy, performance, fast and lively movements, diversity and richness of facial expressions, fast pace of speech.

Sanguine has a provocation often alternating impressions, easily and quickly responds to the events of the environment, is social.

Sanguine

Melancholic

Melancholic individuals tend to be analytical and detail-oriented, and they are deep thinkers and feelers.

They are introverted and try to avoid being singled out in a crowd.

A melancholic personality leads to self-reliant individuals who are thoughtful, reserved, and often anxious.

Melancholic

Mental Disorder

Mental disorder is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or occur as a single episode.

Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders.

Such disorders may be diagnosed by a mental health professional, usually a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist.

Mental Disorder

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