Aphasia is an inability to comprehend or formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.
The major causes are a cerebral vascular accident (stroke) or head trauma.
Aphasia can also be the result of brain tumors, brain infections, or neurodegenerative diseases, but the latter are far less prevalent.
The difficulties of people with aphasia can range from occasional trouble finding words, to losing the ability to speak, read, or write; intelligence, however, is unaffected.
Behaviour therapy is a broad term referring to clinical psychotherapy that uses techniques derived from behaviourism and/or cognitive psychology.
It looks at specific, learned behaviours and how the environment, or other people’s mental states, influences those behaviours, and consists of techniques based on learning theory, such as respondent or operant conditioning.
Behaviourists who practice these techniques are either behaviour analysts or cognitive-behavioural therapists. They tend to look for treatment outcomes that are objectively measurable.
Metacognition is an awareness of one’s own thought processes and an understanding of the patterns behind them.
Metacognition can take many forms, such as reflecting on one’s own ways of thinking and knowing when and how to use particular strategies for problem-solving.
Metamemory, defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form of metacognition.
Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that begins in childhood or adolescence.
It is characterized by multiple movement and vocal tics. Common tics are blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements.
These are typically preceded by an unwanted urge or sensation in the affected muscles known as a premonitory urge, can sometimes be suppressed temporarily, and characteristically change in location, strength, and frequency.