Artificial satellite is an object that people have made and launched into orbit using rockets.
There are currently over a thousand active satellites orbiting the Earth. The size, altitude and design of a satellite depend on its purpose.
Electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor’s magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor’s shaft.
Electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as a power grid, inverters or electrical generators.
3D printing is the construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD model or a digital 3D model.
The term “3D printing” can refer to a variety of processes in which material is deposited, joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as plastics, liquids or powder grains being fused together), typically layer by layer.
One of the key advantages of 3D printing is the ability to produce very complex shapes or geometries that would be otherwise impossible to construct by hand, including hollow parts or parts with internal truss structures to reduce weight.
Solar panel (Photo-voltaic (PV) module) is an assembly of photo-voltaic cells mounted in a framework for installation.
Solar panels use sunlight as a source of energy to generate direct current electricity.
A collection of PV modules is called a PV panel, and a system of PV panels is call an array.
Arrays of a photovoltaic system supply solar electricity to electrical equipment.
Most solar modules are currently produced from crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells made of multicrystalline and monocrystalline silicon.
Transmission line is a specialized cable or other structure designed to conduct electromagnetic waves in a contained manner.
The term applies when the conductors are long enough that the wave nature of the transmission must be taken into account.
Transmission lines are used for purposes such as connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas (they are then called feed lines or feeders), distributing cable television signals, trunklines routing calls between telephone switching centres, computer network connections and high speed computer data buses.
Integrated Electronic Circuit
Integrated electronic circuit (IC) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or “chip”) of semiconductor material, usually silicon.
Large numbers of tiny MOSFETs (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors) integrate into a small chip.
This results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components.
ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics.
Rocket is a projectile that spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicles use to obtain thrust from a rocket engine.
Rocket engine exhaust is formed entirely from propellant carried within the rocket.
Rocket engines work by action and reaction and push rockets forward simply by expelling their exhaust in the opposite direction at high speed, and can therefore work in the vacuum of space.
In fact, rockets work more efficiently in space than in an atmosphere.
Wind turbine is a device that converts the wind’s kinetic energy into electrical energy.
Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, with either horizontal or vertical axes.
It is estimated that hundreds of thousands of large turbines, in installations known as wind farms, now generate over 650 gigawatts of power, with 60 GW added each year.
They are an increasingly important source of intermittent renewable energy.
Rocket engine uses stored rocket propellants as the reaction mass for forming a high-speed propulsive jet of fluid, usually high-temperature gas.
Rocket engines are reaction engines, producing thrust by ejecting mass rearward, in accordance with Newton’s third law.
Most rocket engines use the combustion of reactive chemicals to supply the necessary energy, but non-combusting forms such as cold gas thrusters and nuclear thermal rockets also exist.
Vacuum tube is a device that controls electric current flow in a high vacuum between electrodes to which an electric potential difference has been applied.
The type known as a thermionic tube or thermionic valve uses the phenomenon of thermionic emission of electrons from a hot cathode and is used for a number of fundamental electronic functions such as signal amplification and current rectification.
Non-thermionic types, such as a vacuum phototube however, achieve electron emission through the photoelectric effect, and are used for such purposes as the detection of light intensities.
Engine control unit
Engine control unit is a type of electronic control unit that controls a series of actuators on an internal combustion engine to ensure optimal engine performance.
It does this by reading values from a multitude of sensors within the engine bay, interpreting the data using multidimensional performance maps (called lookup tables), and adjusting the engine actuators.
Before ECUs, air–fuel mixture, ignition timing, and idle speed were mechanically set and dynamically controlled by mechanical and pneumatic means.
Aircraft engine is the power component of an aircraft propulsion system.
Most aircraft engines are either piston engines or gas turbines, although a few have been rocket powered and in recent years many small UAVs have used electric motors.
Aircraft reciprocating (piston) engines are typically designed to run on aviation gasoline.
Avgas has a higher octane rating than automotive gasoline to allow higher compression ratios, power output, and efficiency at higher altitudes. Currently the most common Avgas is 100LL.
Jet pack is a device worn on the back which uses jets of gas or liquid to propel the wearer through the air. It allows the user to fly by providing thrust.
A practical use for the jet pack has been in extra-vehicular activities for astronauts because of the apparent weightlessness and lack of friction-creating atmosphere in orbit.
Real jet packs have been developed using a variety of mechanisms, but their uses are much more limited than their fictional counterparts because of the challenges of the Earth’s atmosphere, gravity, the low energy density of utilisable fuels, and the human body not being suited to flight, and they are principally used for stunts.
The first pack design was developed in 1919 by the Russian inventor Alexander Andreev.
Later it was issued a patent but apparently was not built or tested. It was oxygen-and-methane-powered (likeliest a rocket) with wings each roughly 1 m (3 feet) long.
Organic Solar Cell
Organic solar cell is a type of photovoltaic that uses organic electronics, a branch of electronics that deals with conductive organic polymers or small organic molecules, for light absorption and charge transport to produce electricity from sunlight by the photovoltaic effect.
Most organic photovoltaic cells are polymer solar cells.
Combined with the flexibility of organic molecules, organic solar cells are potentially cost-effective for photovoltaic applications.
Liquid-propellant rocket utilizes a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
Liquids are desirable because they have a reasonably high density and high specific impulse.
This allows the volume of the propellant tanks to be relatively low.
It is also possible to use lightweight centrifugal turbopumps to pump the rocket propellant from the tanks into the combustion chamber, which means that the propellants can be kept under low pressure.