Computer Science

Internet Network

Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies.

The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

Optical Cables

Hard Disk Drive

Hard disk drive is an electro-mechanical data storage device that stores and retrieves digital data using magnetic storage and one or more rigid rapidly rotating platters coated with magnetic material.

The platters are paired with magnetic heads, usually arranged on a moving actuator arm, which read and write data to the platter surfaces.

Data is accessed in a random-access manner, meaning that individual blocks of data can be stored and retrieved in any order.

HDDs are a type of non-volatile storage, retaining stored data even when powered off. Modern HDDs are typically in the form of a small rectangular box.

Hard Disk Drive

Database

Database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system.

Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal design and modeling techniques.

The database management system (DBMS) is the software that interacts with end users, applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze the data.

The DBMS software additionally encompasses the core facilities provided to administer the database.

Database

Graphics processing unit

Graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.

GPUs are used in embedded systems, mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game consoles.

Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics and image processing.

Their highly parallel structure makes them more efficient than general-purpose central processing units (CPUs) for algorithms that process large blocks of data in parallel.

In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card or embedded on the motherboard.

Graphics processing unit

Biometrics

Biometric authentication is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.

Biometric identifiers are the distinctive, measurable characteristics used to label and describe individuals.

Biometric identifiers are often categorized as physiological characteristics, which are related to the shape of the body.

Biometrics

Quantum computing

Quantum computing is the exploitation of collective properties of quantum states, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform computation.

The devices that perform quantum computations are known as quantum computers.

They are believed to be able to solve certain computational problems, such as integer factorization (which underlies RSA encryption), substantially faster than classical computers.

The study of quantum computing is a subfield of quantum information science. Expansion is expected in the next few years as the field shifts toward real-world use in pharmaceutical, data security and other applications.

Quantum Computer

Programming

Programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a specific task.

Programming involves tasks such as: analysis, generating algorithms, profiling algorithms’ accuracy and resource consumption, and the implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language (commonly referred to as coding).

The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate the performance of a task (which can be as complex as an operating system) on a computer, often for solving a given problem.

Programming

Server

Server is a piece of computer hardware or software that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called “clients”.

Servers can provide various functionalities, often called “services”, such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client.

A single server can serve multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers. A client process may run on the same device or may connect over a network to a server on a different device.

Typical servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print servers, web servers, game servers, and application servers.

Server

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