Four temperaments

Four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory which suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic. Most formulations include the possibility of mixtures among the types where an individual’s personality types overlap and they share two or more temperaments.

Greek physician Hippocrates described the four temperaments as part of the ancient medical concept of humourism, that four bodily fluids affect human personality traits and behaviours. Modern medical science does not define a fixed relationship between internal secretions and personality, although some psychological personality type systems use categories similar to the Greek temperaments.

Phlegmatic individuals tend to be relaxed, peaceful, quiet, and easy-going. They are sympathetic and care about others, yet they try to hide their emotions. Phlegmatic individuals are also good at generalising ideas or problems to the
world and making compromises.

In short, these are people who are mostly intelligent, prudent, not interested in unimportant problems, and if they are already interested in something, they know how to solve it objectively.

Empathy is also one of their strengths, because a person who can soberly evaluate most of his “problems” as unworthy of his attention must be a detailist.

And a person who pays attention to details is a person who sees in most people. Intelligence, attention, mild sarcasm but empathy, thinking about big things… Thats a phlegmatic.

Sanguine is a man who could be described as such – a stable extrovert. It is characterized by high mental activity, energy, performance, fast and lively movements, diversity and richness of facial expressions, fast pace of speech.

Sanguine has a provocation often alternating impressions, easily and quickly responds to the events of the environment, is social.
Emotions – especially positive ones – arise quickly and change rapidly.

It overcomes failures relatively easily and quickly. These people are very good in managerial positions, in courtrooms, inpsychology, but they are also very much needed among the ranks of ordinaryemployees.

Their strengths are, maintaining morality and a positive mood in the team, they are also good examples for others who usually try to imitate them. They know how to defend their opinion and they are mostly very confident people who have clearly defined goals.So, positivity, the gift of speech, authority, leadership, extroversion – this is a sanguine.

Melancholic individuals tend to be analytical and detail-oriented, and they are deep thinkers and feelers. They are introverted and try to avoid being singled out in a crowd, and also most of them are perfectionists. 

A melancholic personality leads to self-reliant individuals who are thoughtful, reserved, and often anxious. They often strive for perfection within themselves and their surroundings, which leads to tidy and detail-oriented behavior.

Choleric individuals tend to be more extroverted. They are described as independent, decisive, goal-oriented, and ambitious. These combined with their dominant, result-oriented outlook make them natural leaders. In Greek, Medieval, and Renaissance thought, they were also violent, vengeful, and short-tempered.

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