Adjustment disorder (AjD) is a mental and behavioral disorder, which is a maladaptive response to a psychosocial stressor that occurs when an individual has significant difficulty adjusting to or coping with a stressful psychosocial event.
The maladaptive response usually involves otherwise normal emotional and behavioral reactions that manifest more intensely than usual (taking into account contextual and cultural factors), causing marked distress, preoccupation with the stressor and its consequences, and functional impairment.
AjD was introduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1980. Prior to that, it was called “transient situational disturbance.”
Some emotional signs of adjustment disorder are: sadness, hopelessness, lack of enjoyment, crying spells, nervousness, anxiety, desperation, feeling overwhelmed and thoughts of suicide, performing poorly in school/work etc.
Common characteristics of AjD include mild depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and traumatic stress symptoms or a combination of the three.
According to the DSM-5, there are six types of AjD, which are characterized by the following predominant symptoms: depressed mood, anxiety, mixed depression and anxiety, disturbance of conduct, mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct, and unspecified. However, the criteria for these symptoms are not specified in greater detail.
AjD may be acute or chronic, depending on whether it lasts more or less than six months. According to the DSM-5, if the AjD lasts less than six months, then it may be considered acute. If it lasts more than six months, it may be considered chronic.
Moreover, the symptoms cannot last longer than six months after the stressor(s), or its consequences, have terminated. However, the stress-related disturbance does not only exist as an exacerbation of a pre-existing mental disorder.
Diagnosis of AjD is quite common; there is an estimated incidence of 5–21% among psychiatric consultation services for adults. Adult women are diagnosed twice as often as are adult men. Among children and adolescents, girls and boys are equally likely to receive this diagnosis.
Unlike major depression, the disorder is caused by an outside stressor and generally resolves once the individual is able to adapt to the situation. The condition is different from anxiety disorder, which lacks the presence of a stressor, or post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder, which usually are associated with a more intense stressor.
Those exposed to repeated trauma are at greater risk, even if that trauma is in the distant past. Age can be a factor due to young children having fewer coping resources; children are also less likely to assess the consequences of a potential stressor.
A stressor is generally an event of a serious, unusual nature that an individual or group of individuals experience. The stressors that cause adjustment disorders may be grossly traumatic or relatively minor, like loss of a girlfriend/boyfriend, a poor report card, or moving to a new neighborhood. It is thought that the more chronic or recurrent the stressor, the more likely it is to produce a disorder.
In addition to professional help, parents and caregivers can help their children with their difficulty adjusting by: offering encouragement to talk about their emotions;
- offering support and understanding;
- reassuring the child that their reactions are normal;
- involving the child’s teachers to check on their progress in school;
- letting the child make simple decisions at home, such as what to eat for dinner or what show to watch on TV;
- having the child engage in a hobby or activity they enjoy.