Micro black holes, also called quantum mechanical black holes or mini black holes, are hypothetical tiny black holes, for which quantum mechanical effects play an important role. The concept that black holes may exist that are smaller than stellar mass was introduced in 1971 by Stephen Hawking.
In principle, a black hole can have any mass equal to or above about 2.21×10−8 kg or 22.1 micrograms (the Planck mass). To make a black hole, one must concentrate mass or energy sufficiently that the escape velocity from the region in which it is concentrated exceeds the speed of light. This condition gives the Schwarzschild radius, , where is the gravitational constant, is the speed of light, and the mass of the black hole.
On the other hand, the Compton wavelength, , where is the Planck constant, represents a limit on the minimum size of the region in which a mass M at rest can be localized. For sufficiently small , the reduced Compton wavelength ( , where ħ is the reduced Planck constant) exceeds half the Schwarzschild radius, and no black hole description exists. This smallest mass for a black hole is thus approximately the Planck mass.
Some extensions of present physics posit the existence of extra dimensions of space. In higher-dimensional spacetime, the strength of gravity increases more rapidly with decreasing distance than in three dimensions. With certain special configurations of the extra dimensions, this effect can lower the Planck scale to the TeV range.
Examples of such extensions include large extra dimensions, special cases of the Randall–Sundrum model, and string theory configurations like the GKP solutions. In such scenarios, black hole production could possibly be an important and observable effect at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It would also be a common natural phenomenon induced by cosmic rays.
It is possible that such quantum primordial black holes were created in the high-density environment of the early Universe (or Big Bang), or possibly through subsequent phase transitions. They might be observed by astrophysicists through the particles they are expected to emit by Hawking radiation.
In 1975, Stephen Hawking argued that, due to quantum effects, black holes “evaporate” by a process now referred to as Hawking radiation in which elementary particles (such as photons, electrons, quarks, gluons) are emitted. His calculations showed that the smaller the size of the black hole, the faster the evaporation rate, resulting in a sudden burst of particles as the micro black hole suddenly explodes. Any primordial black hole of sufficiently low mass will evaporate to near the Planck mass within the lifetime of the Universe.
Conjectures for the final fate of the black hole include total evaporation and production of a Planck-mass-sized black hole remnant. Such Planck-mass black holes may in effect be stable objects if the quantized gaps between their allowed energy levels bar them from emitting Hawking particles or absorbing energy gravitationally like a classical black hole. In such case, they would be weakly interacting massive particles; this could explain dark matter.
A primordial black hole with an initial mass of around 1012 kg would be completing its evaporation today; a less massive primordial black hole would have already evaporated. Under optimal conditions, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite, launched in June 2008, might detect experimental evidence for evaporation of nearby black holes by observing gamma ray bursts. It is unlikely that a collision between a microscopic black hole and an object such as a star or a planet would be noticeable.
The small radius and high density of the black hole would allow it to pass straight through any object consisting of normal atoms, interacting with only few of its atoms while doing so. It has, however, been suggested that a small black hole of sufficient mass passing through the Earth would produce a detectable acoustic or seismic signal.