Meteor shower is an increased occurrence of meteors moving through space along parallel orbits. Meteor showers are the products of small cosmic debris entering the atmosphere at very high speeds. It takes several days to weeks, at the same time each year. Commonly, when we speak of meteor swarms, we mean those that are observable from Earth, but are generally possible on any body with a sufficiently dense atmosphere. perhaps thousands to hundreds of thousands of meteors can be observed with the naked eye per hour.
Each time a comet flies past the Sun, it releases large amounts of small particles from the surface by the action of the solar wind, which eventually dissolve around the comet’s orbit, creating a “stream” of meteoroids. If the orbits of these particles and the Earth intersect at any point, the Earth will pass through this current.
A very dense meteor shower is called a meteor shower, in which case it is possible to see with the naked eye up to several hundred to a thousand meteors per hour. Some swarms are not visible at night but during the day, they are called day swarms. These can only be observed by methods of radio astronomy.
Because the meteor shower s shower particles all move in parallel orbits and at the same velocity, they appear to the observer below them to propagate from one point in the so-called radiant sky. This one radiating point is caused by a perspective effect, similar to railway tracks converging at a single point disappearing beyond the horizon when one looks from a place in the middle of the tracks.
The meteor shower is named after the constellation in which its radiant lies, such as Leonids have a radiant in the constellation Leo, Orionides in the constellation Orion and the like. The only exception is the swarm of the Quadrantida, whose radiant is in the constellation Böode. This meteor shower was named when the constellation Quadrans Muralis existed.
The Leonids are meteor shower caused by Comet Tempel-Tuttle. It is one of the most abundant and popular meteor swarms. It has a maximum around November 17-18. Its radiant is in the mane of the constellation Leo. The most notable was the Leonid rain in November 1833, when over 46,000 meteors were observed per hour.
Geminids are meteor shower caused by the body of 3200 Phaethon. The radiant swarm is located in the constellation Gemini near the star Castor. Geminids can be observed every year between December 7th and 17th, with the maximum occurring around 13-14. December.
Perseids are meteor shower with a radiant in the constellation Perseus, associated with Comet Swift-Tuttle. They are visible every year from mid-July, with a maximum of 12 August and their greatest activity is from 8 August to 14 August. During the maximum, it is common to see more than a hundred meteors per hour. However, their frequency is variable.
Lyridy’s meteor shower. Their radiant lies near the border of Lyra and Hercules. They are also called April Lyrids, according to the maximum date, which is April 21. However, it is active throughout the second half of April, mostly between 16 and 25 April.
Quadrantids are meteor shower. The radiant is located in the constellation Böode. The name of the swarm comes from the name of the extinct constellation Wall Quadrant, whose stars are now part of the constellations Böode, Drak and Hercules. The maximum of the quadrant’s meteor swarm occurs on January 3. The swarm is active from January 1 to January 6. It is currently one of the most abundant, if not the most abundant, meteor swarms.